| | |
    Java Beginner Home
    Table of Contents
    Introduction to Java
    Getting Started with Java
    Basic Language Elements
    Java Operators
    Java Control Statements
    Java Access Modifiers
    Classes and Objects
    Java Constructors
    Object Serialization
    Java Class Inheritance
    Java Object Type Casting
    Abstract class and Interface
    Java Method Overiding
    Java toString Method
    Java String Class
    Java String Comparison
    Java StringBuffer
    Java Exceptions
    Singleton Pattern
    Java Threads Tutorial
    Java Collections Framework
    Java Date Util
    Swing Tutorial
    Download Java Software
    Advertise
    Feedback
    Java books
    Eclipse Plugin Site

Java Singleton Design Pattern



Java has several design patterns Singleton Pattern being the most commonly used. Java Singleton pattern belongs to the family of design patterns, that govern the instantiation process. This design pattern proposes that at any time there can only be one instance of a singleton (object) created by the JVM.

The class’s default constructor is made private, which prevents the direct instantiation of the object by others (Other Classes). A static modifier is applied to the instance method that returns the object as it then makes this method a class level method that can be accessed without creating an object.

One such scenario where it might prove useful is when we develop the help Module in a project. Java Help is an extensible, platform-independent help system that enables authors and developers to incorporate online help into applications.

Singletons can be used to create a Connection Pool. If programmers create a new connection object in every class that requires it, then its clear waste of resources. In this scenario by using a singleton connection class we can maintain a single connection object which can be used throughout the application.

Implementing Singleton Pattern

To implement this design pattern we need to consider the following 4 steps:

Step 1: Provide a default Private constructor
public class SingletonObjectDemo {

	// Note that the constructor is private
	private SingletonObjectDemo() {
		// Optional Code
	}
}

Step 2: Create a Method for getting the reference to the Singleton Object

public class SingletonObjectDemo {

	private static SingletonObject singletonObject;
	// Note that the constructor is private
	private SingletonObjectDemo() {
		// Optional Code
	}
	public static SingletonObjectDemo getSingletonObject() {
		if (singletonObject == null) {
			singletonObject = new SingletonObjectDemo();
		}
		return singletonObject;
	}
}

We write a public static getter or access method to get the instance of the Singleton Object at runtime. First time the object is created inside this method as it is null. Subsequent calls to this method returns the same object created as the object is globally declared (private) and the hence the same referenced object is returned.

Step 3: Make the Access method Synchronized to prevent Thread Problems.


public static synchronized SingletonObjectDemo getSingletonObject()

It could happen that the access method may be called twice from 2 different classes at the same time and hence more than one object being created. This could violate the design patter principle. In order to prevent the simultaneous invocation of the getter method by 2 threads or classes simultaneously we add the synchronized keyword to the method declaration

Step 4: Override the Object clone method to prevent cloning

We can still be able to create a copy of the Object by cloning it using the Object’s clone method. This can be done as shown below

SingletonObjectDemo clonedObject = (SingletonObjectDemo) obj.clone();

This again violates the Singleton Design Pattern’s objective. So to deal with this we need to override the Object’s clone method which throws a CloneNotSupportedException exception.

public Object clone() throws CloneNotSupportedException {
throw new CloneNotSupportedException();
}

The below program shows the final Implementation of Singleton Design Pattern in java, by using all the 4 steps mentioned above.

class SingletonClass {

	private static SingletonClass singletonObject;
	/** A private Constructor prevents any other class from instantiating. */
	private SingletonClass() {
		//	 Optional Code
	}
	public static synchronized SingletonClass getSingletonObject() {
		if (singletonObject == null) {
			singletonObject = new SingletonClass();
		}
		return singletonObject;
	}
	public Object clone() throws CloneNotSupportedException {
		throw new CloneNotSupportedException();
	}
}

public class SingletonObjectDemo {

	public static void main(String args[]) {
		//		SingletonClass obj = new SingletonClass();
                //Compilation error not allowed
		SingletonClass obj = SingletonClass.getSingletonObject();
		// Your Business Logic
		System.out.println("Singleton object obtained");
	}
}


Download
SingletonObjectDemo.java

Another approach


We don’t need to do a lazy initialization of the instance object or to check for null in the get method. We can also make the singleton class final to avoid sub classing that may cause other problems.

public class SingletonClass {

	private static SingletonClass ourInstance = new SingletonClass();
	public static SingletonClass getInstance() {
		return singletonObj;
	}
	private SingletonClass() {
	}
}

In Summary, the job of the Singleton class is to enforce the existence of a maximum of one object of the same type at any given time. Depending on your implementation, your class and all of its data might be garbage collected. Hence we must ensure that at any point there must be a live reference to the class when the application is running.

 
 
    Java is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
| | |
© Copyright 2007-08 javabeginner.com